A couple more questions on war
I. Marc Carlson
IMC at vax2.utulsa.edu
Wed Jul 19 11:26:35 PDT 1995
<Duncan<kmv at abm.austin.tx.us (Kevin Varner)>>
>On a slightly different note regarding drums on the field and "good D&C".
>Drums early on tended to be used as signaling devices rather than
>cadence setters. A flurry of drum to get sub-commanders attention
>and signal flags used to send the orders. The concept of "wide scale
>D&C" as we know it in European armies come about after 1700.
Hmm. Not to sound arguementative, but can you document that?
Certainly. I'll grant that their use is late in period, perhaps even so
much as post-1500, but certainly not 1700.
My evidence is fairly simple, it's true. With it I shall try and establish
that *some* armies in "Period" (600-1600) were in fact using "Large Scale
D&C"; as well as make a clear suggestion that Drums might have had a part
in maintaining what we today would refer to as a cadence for troop movement.
1. Hale, John R. The Art of War and Renaissance England, 1961.
Facing page 36 is a reprint of the Frontispiece for Niccolo
Machiavelli's The Art of War, translated into English in 1560,
showing a drummer as one of the supporters of the title.
2. Ibid. Page 42 discusses the French attempts to begin using units
based on the "Roman" system, and on the facing page is a reprint of
a page from Raimond de Beccarie de Pavie, Sieur de Fourquevaux,
Instructions for the Wars, trans. Paul Ive, 1589; showing a unit
in a complex formation. True no drummers are mentioned are shown,
but I'm more concerned about the formation in this case.
3. Ibid. Facing page 48 is a picture reprinted from Thomas Styward,
The Pathway to Martial Discipline. 1581, clearly diagraming the
author's "ideal" unit formation. In the center are two ranks of
Fife and Drummer, one ahead of the captains, sergeants and surgeons,
the other behind.
4. Machiavelli, Nicolo. The Art of War. (First published in Italian, 1521)
Book 2, [physical training for soldiers] "third, he must learn to
keep his proper place, both in marching, in fighting and encamping."
5. Ibid. Book 2 [Forms of the solid double square; a second method for
forming the solid double square] "... the Constable with the color
bearer and the musician stand in the space between the five ranks of
pikemen and the fifteen of shieldmen..." (as well as a description of
some fairly nice, simple battalion scale D&C).
6. Ibid. Book 2 [Military Music] "When well handled, this music
regulates the army, which by moving in paces that corresponds to its
beats, easily keeps in rank. Thence it is that the ancients had
whistles and fifes... But today military music generally yeilds
no other benefit than the making of a noise" (Hey, I'm at least
honest in my evidence :); however: )
6. OED, 2d Ed. "Drummer"...1. One who beats a drum for public or
military purposes; one who plays the drum in a band....
1573/80 Baret, Avl. D 1309 "A drummer or plaier on the drumme"
1580 Nottingham rec. IV 196 "Payed to the drummer, xvj d."
1593 Shakespeare, 3 Henry VI, iv vii 50 "Drummer strike vp,
and let us march away."
"Mihi Satis Apparet Propter Diarmuit Ui Dhuinn
Se Ipsum Appetenda Sapientia" University of Northkeep
-- St. Dunstan Northkeepshire, Ansteorra
(I. Marc Carlson/IMC at vax2.utulsa.edu)
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