A couple more questions on war

I. Marc Carlson IMC at vax2.utulsa.edu
Wed Jul 19 11:26:35 PDT 1995

<Duncan<kmv at abm.austin.tx.us (Kevin Varner)>>
>On a slightly different note regarding drums on the field and "good D&C".
>Drums early on tended to be used as signaling devices rather than
>cadence setters.  A flurry of drum to get sub-commanders attention
>and signal flags used to send the orders.  The concept of "wide scale
>D&C" as we know it in European armies come about after 1700.

Hmm.  Not to sound arguementative, but can you document that?
Certainly. I'll grant that their use is late in period, perhaps even so
much as post-1500, but certainly not 1700.

My evidence is fairly simple, it's true.  With it I shall try and establish
that *some* armies in "Period" (600-1600) were in fact using "Large Scale
D&C"; as well as make a clear suggestion that Drums might have had a part
in maintaining what we today would refer to as a cadence for troop movement.

1.	Hale, John R.  The Art of War and Renaissance England, 1961.
	Facing page 36 is a reprint of the Frontispiece for Niccolo 
	Machiavelli's The Art of War, translated into English in 1560,
	showing a drummer as one of the supporters of the title.

2.	Ibid.  Page 42 discusses the French attempts to begin using units
	based on the "Roman" system, and on the facing page is a reprint of
	a page from Raimond de Beccarie de Pavie, Sieur de Fourquevaux, 
	Instructions for the Wars, trans. Paul Ive, 1589; showing a unit
	in a complex formation.  True no drummers are mentioned are shown,
	but I'm more concerned about the formation in this case.

3.	Ibid.  Facing page 48 is a picture reprinted from Thomas Styward,
	The Pathway to Martial Discipline. 1581, clearly diagraming the
	author's "ideal" unit formation.  In the center are two ranks of
	Fife and Drummer, one ahead of the captains, sergeants and surgeons,
	the other behind.

4.	Machiavelli, Nicolo.  The Art of War. (First published in Italian, 1521)
	Book 2, [physical training for soldiers]  "third, he must learn to
	keep his proper place, both in marching, in fighting and encamping."

5.	Ibid.  Book 2 [Forms of the solid double square; a second method for
	forming the solid double square] "... the Constable with the color 
	bearer and the musician stand in the space between the five ranks of
	pikemen and the fifteen of shieldmen..." (as well as a description of
	some fairly nice, simple battalion scale D&C).

6.	Ibid.  Book 2 [Military Music]  "When well handled, this music
	regulates the army, which by moving in paces that corresponds to its
	beats, easily keeps in rank.  Thence it is that the ancients had
	whistles and fifes...  But today military music generally yeilds
	no other benefit than the making of a noise"  (Hey, I'm at least
	honest in my evidence :); however: )

6.	OED, 2d Ed.  "Drummer"...1. One who beats a drum for public or 
	military purposes; one who plays the drum in a band....
	1573/80  Baret, Avl. D 1309 "A drummer or plaier on the drumme"
	1580     Nottingham rec. IV 196 "Payed to the drummer, xvj d."
	1593     Shakespeare, 3 Henry VI, iv vii 50 "Drummer strike vp,
                 and let us march away."

"Mihi Satis Apparet Propter     Diarmuit Ui Dhuinn
  Se Ipsum Appetenda Sapientia"	University of Northkeep
 -- St. Dunstan			Northkeepshire, Ansteorra
				(I. Marc Carlson/IMC at vax2.utulsa.edu)

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