dennis grace amazing at
Thu Dec 12 21:10:23 PST 1996

Greetings, Cosyns,

Lady Deirdre wrote:

>Did anyone take the time to read the introduction in the newest "Complete
>Anachronist", vol 88-- "Beyond Prowess"?? 
>I did. Found out that according to Maurice Keen in his book "Chivalry",
>prowess, skill at arms and strength of body, is only the first of six
>virtues necessary to become a knight.
>Very interesting. Subconsciously, I thing i knew this.  Made me rather
>curious though. Prowess is the only one mentioned. What are the other

No, I haven't read the latest CA, but the author has oversimplified Keen's
explanations.  The majority of Keen's text _Chivalry_ is dedicated to
determining the various virtues that comprised the evanescent idea we call
"chivalry."  Early in his text, Keen remarks, "From a very early stage we
find the romantic authors habitually associating together certain qualities
which they clearly regarded as the classic virtues of good knighthood:
prouesse, loyaute', largesse (generosity), courtoisie, and franchise (the
free and frank bearing that is visible testimony to the combination of good
birth with virtue).

Keen later cites sources which list:  
        "those who are bons, saiges et cortois, preux et vaillans" [good,
wise, courteous, martially competent, and valiant].
        "Manheit, Milte, Zuht, and Trowve. . . the direct analogues of
French prouesse, largesse, courtoisie and loyaute'." [In the German cult of
Ritterschaft and Ere.]

Keen talks about the church's gradual encroachment upon the rites of
knighthood, but he never discusses the virtue "piety."

Keen's _Chivalry_ is probably the most frequently cited source on ceremonies
and virtues of knoghthood, but the work is rather thinly encyclopedic.  It
does, however, reference some terrific primary sources. 

Hoping this fills out your list some, I remain

Yours in Virtual Service,

Sir Lyonel Oliver Grace
Dennis G. Grace
Postmodern Medievalist
Division of Rhetoric and Composition
Department of English
University of Texas at Austin
amazing at

Si hoc legere scis, nimium eruditionis habes.

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